Snake venoms are a lethal saliva that contains powerful toxins that facilitates the breaking down and immobilization of prey. This provides defense against many threats as well. Different snake species can be recognized by their specific fang types that enables them to inject venom in the specified areas. Snake venom consists of two types: the barbed and venomous snake fang, which facilitates the breaking down of tissue and the exoskeleton of the prey, and other barbed and nonvenomous snake fang that breaks down the soft tissues of the prey. In addition to this, some species can also spit venom at the prey.
There are a number of snake venoms that are found in different parts of Australia, with the most common occurring in the Brisbane snake venomous snakes. The Brisbane snake venom mainly consists of a protein cocktail that is fatal to humans. However, the lethally poisonous varieties can cause death in animals like dogs and cats. Snakes that usually live in damp and cool areas are more prone to developing these dangerous serrated snake venom glands. Some other deadly snake venom are the cobra snake venom, pit viper poison, milk snake venom, copperhead snake venom and thysanura snake venom.
Snakes are not only found in Australia, but there are several subspecies in other areas as well. Among these, the commonest snake varieties are the cellar snake, coral snake, mouse cat snake, carpet snake, red backed mouse cat snake, white-tailed mouse snake, boxelder mouse snake, slipper mouse snake, cotton trapdoor snake, stonebelly trapdoor snake and the greenback trapdoor snake. Apart from these, there are also other less common but deadly snake venoms such as the cobra poison, egg pit venom, heartstone poison and opossum poison.
The saliva produced by these snakes contains anti-coagulating proteins and an enzyme called carotene, which remove excess vitamin A and also helps to reduce bleeding. When a snake bites a prey, the anti-coagulating protein in its saliva breaks the skin on the bitten area and also destroys the red blood cells (RBCs). The blood coagulation, or coagulation factor, decreases the red blood cell count (RBC) and also results in hypothermia in patients.
The enzymes produced by snakes have been discovered to be potent enough to affect human cells in a similar manner. The enzymes in snake venom specifically target the hemocytes in the body. Hemocytes are white blood cells that circulate in the blood. Since snakes also inject acids into their wounds, it is probable for the hemocytes to be affected.
There are many venom components that cause irritation to the lymph nodes and gastrointestinal tract of human beings. Many of these components cause vomiting, diarrhea, and loss of appetite. However, some snake venoms are able to induce fever and serious signs of illness such as paralysis and coma. Although these venoms affect mainly vertebrates, there are reports of ingestion of mink venom from bats and even dogs. Humans who consume mink venom are likely to become ill with encephalitis, a condition characterized by a yellowish appearance and severe mental and physical impairment.
The symptoms of encephalitis will usually begin within 24 hours of snake bites and may last for several days. This condition can result in serious complications like brain damage, seizures and coma. This disease is most common in children who have had previous bites and are still at risk of developing encephalitis after following bites. Adults with encephalitis will experience flu-like symptoms like muscle weakness, nausea and vomiting, headache and neck stiffness. Some patients may also suffer from seizures.
Snakes are known to produce a variety of enzymes that aid in their digestive and circulatory systems. These enzymes are made of proteins, and when a snake bites a prey it injects enzymes into the body. Enzymes produced by the body to help break down and eliminate the poisons in the body. The body then produces more enzymes to help combat and remove the toxins from the venom injected. Unfortunately, snakes have evolved a way of producing their own enzymes that are designed to attack and bypass the body’s natural filtering system. With this in mind, it is important to know about the different types of snake venoms and which type of enzyme you should be on the lookout for.